UPSC Daily Current Affairs | Prelims and Mains Exam 21st May 2020

PM- Matsya Sampada Yojana

  • Union Cabinet has given its approval for implementation of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY).
  • It is a scheme to bring about Blue Revolution through sustainable and responsible development of fisheries sector in India under two components namely,Central Sector Scheme (CS) and Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS.
  • It has a total estimated investment of Rs. 20,050 crore comprising of
  1. Central share of Rs. 9,407 crore,
  2. State share of Rs. 4,880 crore,
  3. Beneficiaries’ share of Rs. 5,763 crore.
  • The Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) Component is further segregated into Non-beneficiary oriented and Beneficiary orientated sub­components/activities under the following three broad heads:
  1. Enhancement of Production and Productivity
  2. Infrastructure and Post-Harvest Management
  3. Fisheries Management and Regulatory Framework
  • The Scheme will be implemented during a period of 5 years from FY 2020-21 to FY 2024-25.
  • Funding Pattern of PMMSY will be implemented with the following funding pattern:
  • Central Sector Scheme (CS) – The entire project/unit cost will be borne by the Central government (i.e. 100% central funding).
  • Wherever direct beneficiary oriented i.e. individual/group activities are undertaken by the entities of central government including National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), the central assistance will be up to 40% of the unit/project cost for General category and 60% for SC/ST/Women category.
  • Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) – For the Non-beneficiary orientated sub-components/activities under CSS component to be implemented by the States/UTs, the entire project/unit cost will be shared between Centre and State as detailed below:
  1. North Eastern & Himalayan States – 90% Central share and 10% State share.
  2. Other States – 60% Central share and 40% State share.
  3. Union Territories (with legislature and without legislature) – 100% Central share.
  • The scheme aims to address the critical gaps in the fisheries sector and realize its potential by improving availability of certified quality fish seed and feed, traceability in fish and including effective aquatic health management.
  • It also promises to create direct gainful employment opportunities to about 15 lakh fishers, fish farmers, fish workers, fish vendors and other rural/urban populations in fishing and allied activities and about thrice this number as indirect employment opportunities including enhancement of their incomes.

PM-  Vaya Vandana Yojana

  • Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana (PMVVY) is a Pension Scheme exclusively for the senior citizens aged 60 years and above which was available from 4th May, 2017 to 31st March, 2020.
  • Union government recently extended the scheme up to 31st March, 2023 for a further period of three years beyond 31st March, 2020.
  • Scheme provides initially an assured rate of return of 7.40 % per annum for the year 2020-21 per annum and thereafter to be reset every year.
  • Pension is payable at the end of each period, during the policy term of 10 years, as per the frequency of monthly/ quarterly/ half-yearly/ yearly as chosen by the pensioner at the time of purchase.
  • The scheme is exempted from GST.
  • On survival of the pensioner to the end of the policy term of 10 years, Purchase price along with final pension instalment shall be payable.

Formalisation of Micro Food Processing Enterprises

  • Union government has approved a scheme for Formalisation of Micro Food Processing Enterprises (FME, it intends to increase access to finance and revenue targets for the micro food processing enterprises.
  • It also targets 2,00,000 micro-enterprises to be assisted with credit linked subsidies.
  • It envisages increased access to credit by existing micro food processing entrepreneurs, women entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs in the Aspirational Districts.
  • The project is likely to generate 9 lakh skilled and semi-skilled jobs.
  • It will also help to integrate micro food processing enterprises with the organized markets.
  • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) on All India basis with an outlay of Rs. 10,000 crore.
  • The expenditure will be shared by the Centre and the States in a ratio of 60:40.
  • The Scheme will majorly focus on perishables, and will be implemented over a 5 year period from 2020-21 to 2024-25.
  • The Scheme would be monitored at Centre by an Inter-Ministerial Empowered Committee (IMEC) under the Chairmanship of Food Processing Industries Minister.
  • A State/UT Level Committee (SLC) chaired by the Chief Secretary will monitor and sanction/recommend proposals for expansion of micro units and setting up of new units by the Self Help Groups (SHGs)/Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs)s/ Cooperatives.
  • The Scheme also envisages the third party evaluation and mid-term review mechanism in the programme.

Rahiv Gandhi Kisan Nyay Yojana

  • Chhattisgarh government is set to launch the Rajiv Gandhi Kisan Nyay Yojana to encourage farmers to produce more crops and help them get the right price.
  • The scheme will formally be launched in the state on May 21, the death anniversary of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.
  • Under the scheme, based on registered area and area under cultivation during Kharif crop season 2019, Rs. 10,000 per acre will be deposited in the bank accounts of farmers as agriculture assistance grant for sowing crops such as paddy, maize and sugarcane.
  • According to the government, at least 19 lakh farmers will benefit from the scheme, for which the state government had allocated Rs 5,756 crore in the budget 2020-21.
  • The scheme would cover rice, maize and sugarcane farmers to begin with, and would expand to other crops later.
  • Rice and maize farmers would get ₹10,000 an acre while sugarcane farmers would get ₹13,000.
  • The money would be distributed in four instalments.

Kalapani Territory

  • Kalapani is a valley that is administered by India as a part of the Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand.
  • It is situated on the Kailash Mansarovar route.
  • The Kali River in the Kalapani region demarcates the border between India and Nepal.
  • The Treaty of Sugauli signed by the Kingdom of Nepal and British India (after Anglo-Nepalese War) in 1816 located the Kali River as Nepal’s western boundary with India.
  • The discrepancy in locating the source of the river led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal, with each country producing maps supporting their own claims.
  • In the latest political map of India, India reiterated its claims on the region that Nepal considers its own territory in Darchula district.
  • According to India, the historic Kalapani region forms part of the state of Uttarakhand.
  • Recently India hit out at Nepal for releasing a new political map that includes Kalapani, a bone of contention between the two countries, as well as other disputed spots.

Susta Region

  • Susta area is one of the disputed territories between India (Uttar Pradesh) and Nepal.
  • Susta is located on the bank of the Gandak river (called Narayani river in Nepal).
  • The change of course by the Gandak river is the main reason for disputes in the Susta area.
  • The area is very fertile for agriculture because of the alluvial soil brought by the river.

Kali River

  • It is also known as Sharda river or Kali Ganga in Uttarakhand.
  • It joins Ghagra river in Uttar Pradesh, which is a tributary of Ganga.
  • River Projects includes Tanakpur hydro-electric project, Chameliya hydro-electric project, Sharda Barrage.

Line of Actual Control

  • The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a demarcation line that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory in the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, formed after the 1962 war.
  • There are two common ways in which the term “Line of Actual Control” is used.
  1. In the narrow sense, it refers only to the line of control in the western sector of the borderland between the two countries. In that sense, the LAC forms the effective border between the two countries, together with the (also disputed) McMahon Line in the east and a small undisputed section in between.
  2. In the wider sense, it can be used to refer to both the western line of control and the MacMahon Line, in which sense it is the effective border between India and the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
  • The LAC runs about 1200Kms, which passes through borders of Indian states namely J&K, Ladahk, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh

Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia among older adults.
  • Dementia is a group of brain disorders that cause the loss of intellectual and social skills.
  • Alzheimer’s is caused by the build-up of proteins known as tau tangles or plaques within the brain and is also known as the third type of diabetes.
  • It is a neurological disorder which causes brain cells to degenerate and die. This leads to loss of memory, problems with words in speaking or writing, poor judgment, changes in mood and personality, confusion with time or place, etc.
  • At the first stage, these symptoms are mild but they become more severe with time.
  • Tau is a protein that when it occurs in tangled formations in the brain of Alzheimer patients, disrupts the ability of neurons to communicate with one another in the brain.
  • Alzheimer’s is an incurable disease, as the death of brain cells cannot be reversed.
  • Women have a higher risk of having Alzheimer’s disease than men.
  • Around 100 potential drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease failed between 1998 and 2011 and now these developments are a big step in the direction.

Preventive measures for Alzheimer

  • Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology-Guwahati (IIT-G) have found methods for preventing the accumulation of neurotoxic molecules in the brain, which leads to Alzheimer’s disease.
  • The cause of Alzheimer’s is the accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides (neurotoxic molecules) in the brain.
  • Peptide is similar to the plaque that blocks arteries and affects blood supply, leading to cardiovascular diseases.
  • Peptide aggregation/accumulation means their formation of one over the other, deforming the cortex of the brain which leads to Alzheimer’s.
  • The peptide molecules need to have a certain structure to aggregate.
  • Preventive Methods found by Indian researchers
  • Use of Trojan Peptides – In this approach, the purpose is to design a deceitful peptide with “negative syncretical points” for checking the plaque formation.
  • Trojan peptide (deceitful peptide) has the same structure as the peptide in the body but its function is contrary to aggregation.
  • It adopts a similar approach of deceit to impede the aggregation of the amyloid peptide, and reduce poisoning of nerve cells that leads to memory loss.
  • The degeneration of poisoned cells can be delayed by intravenous injection of the trojan peptide, which in turn, can delay the onset of disease by 10 years.
  • Application of a low-voltage electric field – The electric field can prevent amyloid plaques from aggregating.
  • The use of an external electric or magnetic field modulates peptide molecules to pull back the possibility of Alzheimer’s to a certain extent.
  • The cure is important for India because it stands at the third position after China and the USA in the number of Alzheimer’s patients.
  • Along with cure, India also needs to clearly define public health strategy with a significant focus on research into degenerative diseases and investment in the training of healthcare personnel.

Source: PIB, The Hindu, Times of India

Author: IAS Blogger