Dr. B R Ambedkar’s Birth Anniversary
- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was born on 14th April 1891 in Mhow, Central Province (now Madhya Pradesh).
- He was India’s first Law Minister and was Chairman of the Drafting Committee for the new Constitution.
- He led the Mahad Satyagraha in March 1927 against Hindus who were opposing the decision of the Municipal Board to throw open the tank to all communities.
- He participated in all three Round Table Conferences.
- In 1932 Dr. Ambedkar signed the Poona pact with Mahatma Gandhi, which abandoned the idea of separate electorates for the depressed classes (Communal Award).
- His ideas before the Hilton Young Commission served as the foundation of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
- In 1936, he was elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly as a legislator (MLA).
- He was appointed to the Executive Council of Viceroy as a Labour member in 1942.
- In 1947, Dr. Ambedkar accepted PM Nehru’s invitation to become Minister of Law in the first Cabinet of independent India
- He resigned from the cabinet in 1951, over differences on the Hindu Code Bill.
- Contributions of Dr. Ambedkar are as follows
- Organisations – Bahishkrit Hitkarini Sabha (1923), Independent Labor Party (1936), Scheduled Castes Federation (1942).
- Books – Annihilation of Caste, Buddha or Karl Marx, The Untouchable: Who are They and Why They Have Become Untouchables, Buddha and His Dhamma, The Rise and Fall of Hindu Women
- Journals – Mooknayak (1920), Bahishkrit Bharat (1927), Samatha (1929), Janata (1930)
- The Indian Government has set up Panchteerath in the memory of Dr BR Ambedkar.
- Panchteerath include:
- Amedbkar’s birthplace in Mhow,
- The place in London where he stayed while studying in the UK
- Deeksha Bhoomi in Nagpur, where he took education
- Mahaparinirvan Sthal in Delhi, and
- Chaitya Bhoomi in Mumbai
Round Table Conferences
- First Round Table Conference – It was held in London on Nov. 12, 1930 but the Congress did not participate in it.
- Second Round Table Conference – It was held in London on the 7th of September, 1931.
- In March 1931, Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin (Viceroy of India 1926-31) entered into a Pact, called Gandhi-Irwin Pact, by which the Congress called off the Civil Disobedience Movement and agreed to participate in the Round Table Conference.
- Thus Mahatma Gandhi participated only in the second round table conference.
- Third Round Table Conference – It was held in London on the 17th of November, 1932 to consider the reports of various sub-committees appointed from time to time.
- It ultimately led to the passage of Govt. of India Act, 1935.
- The Congress did not participate as most of the leaders were in jail.
- Brazil is home to an estimated 8,00,000 indigenous people from more than 300 ethnic groups.
- Guarani, Kaingang, Pataxó Hã Hã Hãe Tupinambá, Yanomami, Tikuna and Akuntsu are popular tribe of Amazon.
- Yanomami, also called South American Indians, live in the remote forest of the Orinoco River basin in southern Venezuela and the northernmost reaches of the Amazon River basin in northern Brazil.
- They numbered around 27,000 individuals throughout their range.
- Yanomami live in small, scattered, semi permanent villages and speak the Xirianá language.
- They practice hunting and slash-and-burn agriculture.
- Brazilian indigenous leader Davi Kopenawa who secured the land rights of the Yanomami people was awarded the Right Livelihood Award-2019, also known as Sweden’s alternative Nobel Prize.
- Recently, a Yanomami indigenous boy died in Brazil after contracting Covid-19, raising fears for the Amazon tribes.
Meru Jatra Festival
- Meru Jatra marks the end of the 21-day-long festival of penance named ‘Danda Nata’.
- Danda Nata is celebrated in the month of ‘Chaitra’.
- Danda as the name implies, is self-inflicted pain, which the danduas (people who participate in the festival) undergo to pay their obeisance to the lord Kali.
- It is also a form of worshipping the lord Shiva and his consort Parvati.
- The origin of the festival is generally traced to 8th and 9th AD after the decadence of Buddhism in Orissa.
- On the occasion of Mahavishub Sankranti thousands of devotees used to gather at the Tara Tarini hill shrine and other temples.
- Tara Tarini hill shrine, located at a hilltop on banks of the Rushikulya river, is a major centre of Shakti worship in Odisha.
- The twin goddesses Tara and Tarini represent one Shakti and are the main deity of Ganjam district (Odisha).
- Mahavishub Sankranti is the start of the Odia New Year.
- Odisha administrations has banned the famous Chaitra Jatra festival at Tara Tarini hill shrine as a precautionary measure against Covid-19 infection.
- Pattachitra style of painting is one of the oldest and most popular art forms of Odisha.
- The name Pattachitra has evolved from the Sanskrit words Patta, meaning canvas, and Chitra, meaning picture.
- Pattachitra is done on canvas and is manifested by rich colourful application, creative motifs and designs, and portrayal of simple themes, mostly mythological in depiction.
- The Pattachitra, when painted on cloth, follows a traditional process of preparation of the canvas.
- First, the base is prepared by coating the cloth with the soft, white, stone powder of chalk and glue made from tamarind seeds.
- It is a tradition to complete the borders of the painting first.
- The painter then starts making a rough sketch directly with the brush using light red and yellow.
- The colours used are normally white, red, yellow, and black.
- When the painting is completed it is held over a charcoal fire and lacquer is applied to the surface.
- This makes the painting water resistant and durable, besides giving it a shining finish.
- Some of the popular themes represented through this art form are
- Thia Badhia – depiction of the temple of Jagannath.
- Krishna Lila – enactment of Jagannath as Lord Krishna displaying his powers as a child.
- Dasabatara Patti – the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu.
- Panchamukhi – depiction of Lord Ganesh as a five-headed deity.
Interoperable Set Top Boxes
- Recently, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has recommended that all Set Top Boxes (STBs) in the country must be made interoperable.
- It means that consumers should be able to use the same STB across different DTH ( Direct to Home) or cable TV providers.
- As of now STBs deployed in the cable TV networks are non-interoperable.
- STBs in the DTH players comply with license conditions to support common interface module based interoperability.
- So, in practice, they are also not readily interoperable.
- Lack of interoperability deprives the customer of the freedom to change her/his service provider.
- The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has been suggested to make the required amendments in licensing and registration conditions to make interoperability mandatory.
- It has also been recommended to set up a coordination committee to steer implementation of revised STB standards for both the DTH and the cable TV segments.
- The committee may maintain continuous oversight for setting up of the digital TV standards by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).
Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
- It was established by an Act of Parliament (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997) to regulate telecom services, including fixation/revision of tariffs for telecom services.
- It provides a fair and transparent policy environment which promotes a level playing field and facilitates fair competition.
- The TRAI Act was amended to establish a Telecommunications Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to take over the adjudicatory and disputes functions from TRAI.
- TDSAT was set up to adjudicate any dispute between a licensor and a licensee, between two or more service providers, between a service provider and a group of consumers, and to hear and dispose of appeals against any direction, decision or order of TRAI.
Source: The Hindu, Indian Express